Welcome to NGARA


Gaston Georges OUEDRAOGO
Burkina Faso Agency for the Promotion of Non Wood Forest Products
Service (226) 50 46 98 39;
Cel (226) 70 24 84 70;
Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso

Information on country activities available in French. The English version will updated soon.


Dr. Ntoupka Mama
NGARA Focal Point
Email: ntoupka_mama@yahoo.fr


Mr. Djimramadji Alrari
NGARA Focal Point
Ministere de l’ Environement et de l’Eau
BP 447, Ndjamena,
Tel: 235 52 31 28
Mobile: 235 23 74 01
E-mail: djimramadji_alrari@yahoo.fr
or Projet.acacia@intnet.td

Information on country activities available in French. The English version will updated soon.


Mr. Berhane Habte
NGARA Focal Point
National Agricultural research Institute
P. O. Box 4627

Tel: +291 1 59847
Fax: +291 1 181415
Email: berhane_habte@yahoo.com


Mr. Kiflu Segu
NGARA Focal Point
Forest, Land Use and Soil Development and Conservation Department,
Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development,
Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.
Tel: 251 1 155582, or-1 514730
Fax: 251 1 516858
E-mail: keflu2006@yahoo.com


Kenya is hosting the NGARA Secretariat and Kenya Forestry Research Institute is the National Focal Point. Key partners in Kenya regarding the AOP project include: Kenya Agricultural Research Institute (KARI), Kenya Forest Service (KFS) [formerly Forest Department], Gum Arabic and Resins Association, Arid Lands Resources Ltd. and local communities represented by Project Management Committees (PMCs).
In Kenya the Acacia Operation Project (AOP) has established pilot sites in four locations - Sereolipi (Samburu District), Merille, Laisamis and Log-logo (Marsabit District) and in Kibwezi District. The sites were ploughed using mechanized water harvesting technology (Vallerani System) and first planted in October-November 2004.
A total of 20 sites were established; 8 Marsabit District (Merille, Laisamis, Log-logo, Elgadhe, North Horr, Loiyangalani, El Boru Magadho, Gas and Gatab), 1 in Samburu District (Sereolipi) and 11 in Kibwezi Distric. An area totaling 340 ha were ploughed and planted with various dryland tree species and agricultural crops depending on site. A. senegal was planted in Marsabit and Samburu districts while Melia volkensii, Jatropha caurcus and mango were planted in Kibwezi District. Agricultural crops planted included: sorghum, beans, pigeon peas, cowpeas, green grams, pearl millet, watermelon and maize.

Biophysical and socio-economic benchmarking for the project sites have been carried out.
Over the last three years of pilot acitives in Kenya, the country has suffered extensive drought, which has greatly affected the perfomance of tree and agricultural crops at the project sites. Nevertheless, the project has had tremendous positive impact on the local communities in various ways:
Firstly, the sites are situated in areas where the communities are predominantly pastoralists and following sensitization, the communities have begun to embrace agriculture and are now practicing it even in their home steads (manyattas).
Secondly, the communities have taken up to other alternative livelihoods derived from natural resources following establishment and capacity building of Project Management Committees at each site. Through the establishment of producer associations, there are a number of Community Based Organisations (CBOs) that have been formed and active in the production and marketing of various nature based products e.g. gum arabic and resins, handcrafts, tree seeds, bee products as well as hides and skins. The communities especially in Laisamis, Merille and Sereolipi have also established individual and group nurseries that are now a source of income to them, as they sell these seedlings to other community members and institutions (e.g. schools) or other projects. Merigo women group in Log-logo have put up a guest village, where a number of trees have been planted using skills acquired from AOP.
In Kenya synergies have been initiated with various projects, which have ensured that in the Acacia Operation Project sites, community activities are sustained beyond project period. Among these are:
Capacity development of subject matter specialists and communities in sound harvesting and post harvest handling of gum Arabic and gum resins funded by the Government and African Development Bank in Collaboration with Ewaso Ng’iro North Development Authority (ENNDA)
Food for Assets (FFA) funded by the World Food Programme and assisting communities at the AOP field sites
1. Capacity development of subject matter specialists and communities in sound harvesting and post harvest handling of gum Arabic and gum resins funded by the Government and African Development Bank in Collaboration with Ewaso Ng’iro North Development Authority (ENNDA).
A Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) to support the promotion of gum arabic, gum resins and allied dryland resources in Northern Kenya has been elaborated between Ewaso Ng’iro North Development Authority and Kenya Forestry Research Institute in the framework of Acacia Operation Project (AOP) and NGARA. Ewaso Ng’iro North Development Authority is a regional authority with the primary objective of promoting economic development in its area of jurisdiction i.e. the Arid and Semi Arid districts of Garissa, Wajir, Mandera, Moyale, Marsabit, Samburu, Isiolo and Laikipia as well as parts of Meru North, Meru Central, Nyandarua and Nyeri.
The main objective of this project is to train practitioners in the production and marketing of gum arabic and gum resins with the ultimate objective of providing an alternative livelihood source (income generation) for the local community.
The specific objectives were to:
Impart necessary knowledge and skills to extension staff and producers in the sound production of gums and resins in the target districts.
Improve technology on better harvesting, value adding of gums and resins and to increase returns to the collectors.
The training was organized at two levels; Training of Trainers (ToTs) and training of local communities.
1.1 Achievements Training of Trainers has been implemented and a total of 84 Subject Matter Specialists from 9 districts have been trained Producer Associations have been identified in the gum arabic producing districts and 7 been formed Curriculum for Community training has been developed. Community training is scheduled to begin in January 2008 2. Food for Assets (FFA) funded by the World food Programme and assisting communities at the AOP field sites In Kenya, the Acacia Operation Project (AOP) is working with the communities at the project sites through Project Management Committees (PMCs). The original idea of AOP was to have the communities contribute to the project in the form of land and labor. However, majority of the community members working in the project are food insecure and require assistance. The project was therefore forced to provide some token cash for work and later collaborated with the Food for the Hungry International (FHI) through Food for Work (FFW) in fencing two sites (at Merille and Logo-logo). This collaboration was found to be quite useful and more viable in implementing activities in these areas. Another initiative called Food for Asset (FFA) programme in collaboration with World Food Program (WFP) seems even more viable as it is pegged to assets that can assist communities mitigate future droughts. AOP has come up with a wide range of assets. Through FFA, the communities can be supported to effectively develop assets that can be used to mitigate future droughts. Food for Asset (FFA) emphasizes the creation of an asset and its quality, relevance and benefits of the actual ‘work’ to a given community. The idea is to leave a useful asset behind for the community, a more long-term approach as compared to Food For Work (FFW) 2.1 Achievements A concept note on this initiative was submitted to World Food Programme in May 2007 and was approved. It was agreed that food for Emergency Operations (EMOP) will be used in phase 1 (July to September 2007) and that the activities be supported through a three year Protracted Relief and Recovery Operation (PRRO) in phase two (from October 2007). A mission was organized in June 2007 to start off the initiative by visiting the project sites to mobilize the communities on FFA and also to present the proposal to the District Commissioner and seek the approval of the District Steering Group (DSG). The mission was successful and the project was approved. The key stakeholders (WFP, KEFRI/AOP/ NGARA, KARI, KFS and KRC) met in August 2007 at the WFP office in Marsabit and discussed the proposed activities and proposed a way forward before the food distribution could start. The following activities were agreed upon to be carried out on a pilot basis during the month of September in the three sites (Merille, Laisamis and Log-logo): Collection of seeds of A. senegal, A. tortilis and A. seyal Fencing of project sites Repairing of the micro-catchments Collection of gums and resins WFP released the first batch of the food for FFA activities in support AOP activities in Merille and Laisamis sites in September 2007. The next batch of food was released in December 2007. The activities supported so far are fencing of project sites. For more information contact, Mr. Meshack Muga NGARA Focal Point Kenya Forestry Research Institute Karura Forest Products Research Centre P. O. Box 64636-00620 Mobil plaza Nairobi, Kenya. Tel: +254 20 2020623 Fax: 254 20 3750497 Email: meshackmuga@ngara.org


Mr. Maloundine Maouloud
NGARA Focal Point
Ministère du Développement Rural et de l’Environnement
BP 170 , Nouakchott, Mauritanie
Tel : 222 5290 115
Mobile : 222 6441817
E-mail: mauloumdine@yahoo.f r or


Mr. Jonas Diara
NGARA Focal Point
Direction Nationale de la Conservation
Ingenier des Eaux et Forets,
Bamako, Mali
Téléphones : (223) 2233697 (223)2233695
Fax : (223) 2233696
E-mail: conservationature@datatech.net.ml


Engr. Chidume Okoro
NGARA Focal Point
EMAIL: agronomics@alpha.linkserve.com


Mr. Abdou Maisharou
NGARA Focal Point
Ministere del’Hydraulique et de L’Environement
Direction de L’Environment
Ingénieur des Eaux et forêts
B.P. 578, Niamey,
Mobile : 227 974182
E-mail: Maisharoua@yahoo.com
Information on country activities available in French. The English version will updated soon.


ENVIRONMENTAL CONTEXT OF SENEGAL Ecological situation Located at the western tip of Africa, between latitudes 12° and 16°30 north and longitude 11°30 and 17°30 west, Senegal has an area of 196 722 km2. Mainly it is a country consisting of plains and plateaus (altitude below 50 m on ¾ of the territory). The variety of conditions and crop and diversity of its geological substratum is that Senegal offers several types of fertile soils, often fragile and susceptible to wind and water erosion. On the climate level, Senegal, in addition to the differences noted between the coastal and the inland regions because of its coastline of 700 km, is placed under the influence of maritime trade winds, the Harmattan and the monsoon. These air masses will determine two different seasons (the dry season and rainy season). On the eco-geographical, the criteria that take into account a range of biophysical and socioeconomic factors have brought together spaces more or less homogeneous in integrated management perspective. Thus the country is divided into 6 zones: (i) the Senegal River Valley, (ii) Niayes (iii) the peanut basin, (iv) the sylvopastoral area (v) the center and South East, and (vi) Casamance. This division is also split into sub eco-geographical areas (see attached map 6). Socio-economic Status The economic and financial performance recorded in recent years are still insufficient to significantly reduce poverty to achieve the Millennium Development Goals (MDG), including reducing the incidence of poverty by half by the year 2015. Indeed, with the current rhythm of growth of the economy, it will take 30 years to double the PIB per head, which remains one of lowest in the world (U.S. $ 635 in 2003). This poverty is more localized in rural areas and varies between 72 and 88% of the population. And it is in these areas that the phenomenon of land degradation has become very widespread. Poverty, a mainly rural reality Land degradation is causing decline of incomes for rural people. Indeed, the combined effect of symptoms of land degradation (drought, salinity, acidification, erosion, declining yields …) has helped to establish a situation of food shortage and famine in the countryside. Faced with such difficulties increasing, rural populations have developed survival strategies, which for the most part, resulting in intense pressure on natural resources (land clearing unfit for cultivation or low fertility without the use of fertilizers, overgrazing with its negative effects on natural resources). Moreover, the acceleration of soil depletion and loss of vegetation cover (the main source of animal feed) will further reduce yields, so farmers' incomes and destroy the ecological balance. This is the vicious circle degradation - poverty - degradation. National Strategy The preparatory work for the Tenth Plan for Economic and Social Development (PESD) for the period of 2002-2007 served as a framework for identifying 8 strategic fit to accelerate growth and reduce poverty in a context of good governance and including those regarding management of natural resources and environment are: Follow up of the rational management of natural resources and environment, Support efforts to intensify and diversify production to secure incomes of the rural world. On the whole strategy that based on growth and poverty reduction is now as a framework for all policies and interventions of the State and its technical and financial partners. Strategy Document for Poverty Reduction (SDPR) In the SDPR II, the environmental sector is considered as an important long-term growth. Thus, the priorities are as follows: (i) the recovery of forest resources (the rational sustainable diversification of fuels, reduction of losses for consumption), (ii) safeguard the environment and the fight against desertification (Iii) safeguarding of fauna and flora (iv) safeguarding the marine and coastal environment, (v) value of wild resources, (vi) the improvement of urban and rural life (vii) capacity building in management of natural resources and environment (MNRE) (viii) increasing the access of poor to alternative energy, (ix) community management of protected areas; (x) Optimization of government intervention, according to the Code of Environment. Sectoral policy and legislation The state has confirmed its willingness to consider environmental issues as priorities by the development of various sectoral and thematic of which are specifically designed for the environment and the fight against poverty: The Expenditure Framework sectoral in Medium Term (EFS-MT); The National Action Plan for the Environment (NAPE); The National Action Plan for the Fight against Desertification (NAP/FAD); Strategies for the implementation of conventions on biodiversity and climate change; National Plan Management for dangerous waste; The Forest Action Plan of Senegal (FAPS); Action Plan for the Protection and Conservation of Water. Conclusions of the report on the Research program/Development On the study of physical and chemical properties of soil and vegetation The study led to a baseline of the two plots of Thiékène Ndiaye on the physical and chemical properties of soil and the diversity of vegetation. But in the absence of a baseline earlier, we cannot verify obviously if there is an evolution of these parameters following the soil work with Vallerani system. However, when we compare the results of the treated land to those of the witness plot, we find that: The plot has a finer texture and a slightly higher fertility, but the humidity is higher in the treated plot. The treated plot has a most diverse plant community; the number of regenerated seedlings and the density are also higher Biomass of the herbaceous epigeal treated plot is significantly greater than the plot with a difference of 625.5 kg DM ha-1; The plot treated therefore differs markedly from the plot because of its diversity and biomass production plant epigeal higher, then it is less fertile than the latter, the item is promoting the water is also the main limiting factor in this semi-arid area. The trends of this study show that the work of soil with the Vallerani system increases the water-holding capacity of soil by increasing its macro porosity; it facilitates the movement of water and air. The works created by the plow Delphino to collect as much water after a rain thus limit the runoff primary cause of erosion: These conditions have contributed to the development of vegetation in the treated plot. This increase in vegetation presages an improvement in organic content of soil in the years to come. Meanwhile another study, we can retain that current trends show positive effects of the work of soil with the Vallerani system on some physical and chemical properties of soil and vegetation. Furthermore this technology contributes significantly to the intensification of reforestations. The beneficiary populations and technical support council concerned appreciate well the technology. Although its benefits are proven, the technology remains largely unknown to the rural population and support services consultancy. Its cost relatively high would be the main limitation when its adoption as a management technique of water conservation, of biomass and soil fertility. Although the results are significant, the research was, however, faces a number of objective limits which are: The absence of a randomized trial: treatments have not been repeated, this is because this research was not foreseen when planning the plot, so therefore adopted the device is limited a treated plot and another serving as a witness because of this analysis was based on tests of equality of averages. There is no permanent evaluation and monitoring biodiversity of the site (permanent plots), yet less than initial reference situation (before the restore operation of the site). The books are not arranged according to the contour lines, because we found that they are all oriented in the east-west, in parallel and not taking into account the topography, which reduces their effectiveness. It was planned three operations of levies and soil analysis, in dry season, middle and the end of the rainy season. Due to budgetary constraints, this number is reduced to one conducted in April and the results presented in this study. It emerged a few recommendations: The work of soil with this system should be implemented following the contour lines. A prior operation lifting of these curves level is needed. This works, does not facilitate the cultivation of peasants who make culture coupled with the straight lines seeding in Agroforestry plots. But it is the effectiveness of works, which must be located on these curves level; An organic amendment is needed to increase soil fertility, which is very low in organic matter. This included organic matter will improve both the physical qualities (links between soil particles lightweight aggregates more stable) chemical (mineralization continuous humus) and biological (food micro-organisms) of soil. In plantations, it will carry out regular weeding operations to reduce competition from grass. Opening a firewall device around the plot is also necessary to reduce the risk of wildfire. The establishment of a permanent evaluation and participatory monitoring of biodiversity (permanent plots) in all project sites is recommended; In terms of research and development, we propose: A similar study 3 years later to see the changing effects of technology on the dynamics of resources; A comparative study of Vallerani system with other preparation techniques as forestland under the cross Soiling, "large Poteet" and " simple Poteet " on the different soil types encountered in the project sites. This study will not only test the technical and economic of Vallerani technology but also to determine for each type of soil the technique of preparing the soil more efficiently. On the evaluation of socio-economic impacts The assessment of socio-economic restoration highlights the potential of agro soil worked with the Vallérani technology ", with as a corollary to improve population incomes. Plows allow the manufacture of anti-erosion works of a large water storage capacity, which promote and maintain the biological processes; through improved crop conditions, preserving rural ecosystems for better improved coverage plant that could be even stronger in the next few years. Indeed, the plot worked with the Vallérani technology "have a potential plant importantly, a good wiper, because of the paths that may still remain outstanding after two years. However, the evolution of books and their storage capacity in water are variable. Those who are exposed to intensive grazing decline faster over time. In addition, restoration of degraded land solely for Agroforestry is a form of amputation of grazing land that plans should not hide. Otherwise it might exacerbate conflicts between farmers and herders. The beneficiaries of the project have seen returns of their production increase. The improvement of grain balance sheet and income working households in the project has a positive impact on improving their standard of living and their situation will be even more comfortable with the sale of gum when the acacia will reach their stage of production. Therefore the project has contributed so indirect welfare socio-economic households. However respond to socio-economic realities, the use of these tools can only take place with technical support and financial field. Apart from these performances related to technology constraints have been identified. These include reducing grazing areas, the need to close the plots worked with plows to prevent incursions of livestock, outdated farm equipment on site and found high rates of emigration recorded in villages Thiékéne of Ndiaye and Soringho. On the agronomic At first, it seems important to work to increase yields. In this perspective should be: Facilitate the acquisition of inputs at lower cost, by state subsidy. According to PIERI (1989), the increase of yield is linked to a high absorption of nutrients, without it the work of soil is increasing its loss, so that the yields for long-term decline. But experience has shown that a project cannot be responsible for the provision of inputs. It may not be able to recover the debts contracted by farmers, who took the bad habit of considering as a gift that emanates from a project. Therefore better support the establishment of a self-sustainable, managed by private traders and farmers. Make available to farmers the quality seeds by measures. Conduct extensive research on the treatment plant with local means, given the high costs of pesticides, and fight against pests, termites and grain-eating birds that are increasingly a threat to crops in those areas. Increase the areas worked with plows, to reduce the large untapped. On the technical Fencing the plots. The absence of closure is a major problem to solve. Indeed, it is responsible for the low adoption rate in some localities on the one hand and contributes to avoid conflicts between farmers and herders in those other localities. Ensure renewal of farm equipment. The sub-farm equipment is an obstacle to the use of vast areas of unexploited a share. And the competition between the cultivation, which must increasingly follow within a deadline reduced because of the variability of rainfall on the other. Cultivate the plots to meet the demand of farmers who claimed unanimously. On the socio-economic Open a line of credit if possible, to facilitate access to inputs and renewal of farm equipment for potential adopters of the project, through specialized financial institutions. This would facilitate greater adoption of the Vallérani system. Establish drilling for the lack of water raging in some localities and at the same time, diversify the production activities. On the social Establish pastoral amendments to fight conflicts between farmers and herders. Informing farmers of the benefits of developed plots on livestock, with the fruits of Acacia senegal from the pasture that can be cut and kept for use in livestock. Ms. Condeye Sylla Gaye NGARA Focal Point Direction des Eaux et Forêts, BP 1831, Dakar Hann , Senegal Tel: (221) 8320565 Fax : (221) 832 27 89 Mobile: 2216528020 E-mail: syllacondeye@yahoo.com


FAO, through the Somali country office [Special Emergency Programme Services (TCES)] is implementing a project “Community Based Local Economic Development of Somaliland and Puntland” with the aim of contributing to sustainable economic growth of the two states, leading to the creation of new sustainable and livelihood opportunities. The project has identified the potential of aromatic resins and gum Arabic to the local economy and is using them as entry points. Two of the key components are mapping and assessment of the aromatic resin and gum Arabic resources in the two states.
To implement this project, FAO is collaborating with NGARA and RCMRD with the former carrying out an appraisal of the aromatic resins and gum Arabic sub sector and inventory of the resources while RCMRD is undertaking the mapping. To date, an appraisal of the current production, quality control practices and stakeholders have been carried out. Additionally, the aromatic resins and gum Arabic resources have been identified, mapped and inventoried and appropriate management practices for sustainable production and enhanced quality control proposed.

Development of Aromatic Resins and Commercial Gums in Northern Somalia (Somaliland and Puntland)

MISSION TO SOMALILAND ...NGARA collaborates with various organizations to achieve its objectives including FAO Somali...More... For more information contact:
Mr Ahmed Abaasr
NGARA Focal Point
E-mail: abasah2001@hotmail.com


SNV Southern Sudan

In June 2009, SNV Southern Sudan, in collaboration with NGARA conducted a rapid situational analysis of the gum arabic sub-sector in three states of Southern Sudan namely: Upper Nile State (UNS), North Barhl El Ghazal State (NBEGS) and Eastern Equatoria State (EES). This study aimed at determining the current state of gum acacia in Southern Sudan, where it’s found, estimated quantities or potential, where current harvesting is taking place, who the harvesters are, current uses of gum acacia, current markets and marketing organizations, current prices, overview of relevant policies, map other different actors in the gum Arabic sub sector and their activities including challenges being encountered. Additionally, other important non timber forest products were to be identified and traditional knowledge in development and conservation strategies of gum and these NTFPs documented.


Dr. Lawrence Mbwambo
NGARA Focal Point
Tanzania Forestry Research Institute and NGARA Focal Point
P. O. Box 1854
Tel: +255 23 2614498/9
Fax: +255 23 2614498/9
email: lrmbwambo@yahoo.co


NGARA Uganda Program Update
Background information on NGARA Uganda Programme

  1. Resource Mapping and Assessment of gum arabic and aloe producing species This activity of resource mapping was spearheaded by the experts from the Regional Centre for Mapping of Resources for Development (RCMRD). A report entitled; Uganda Program on Gum Arabic, Aloe and Allied Dryland Resources :Resource Mapping, Assessment and Strengthening of the Local Capacity detailing the methodology, results and preliminary maps showing location, distribution and densities was presented to the Government of Uganda in February 2007. Further ground truthing and verification is being undertaken before final maps and a harmonized report are produced.
  2. Resource Identification Plant taxonomists undertook taxonomical identification within the selected areas by species, sub species and varieties that produce gum arabic (including potential adulterants), Aloe and other dryland resources in Karamoja region. A detailed taxonomical description of all the identified species was provided.
  3. Capacity Building The training of subject matter specialists, producers and collectors was carried out in March 2007 in the following areas:

    • Gum arabic and aloe resources
    • Rapid resources assessment
    • Best harvesting practices
    • Cleaning and sorting
    • Storage and packaging
For more details, contact

Stephen Muwaya
NGARA Focal Point
Ministry of Agriculture, Animal Industry and Fisheries
P. O. Box 102 Entebbe,
Tel: 256-41-343696
Cell: 256-75-2-642536